Monday, August 24, 2020

Introduction To The Kingdom Of Spain Politics Essay

Prologue To The Kingdom Of Spain Politics Essay Spain authoritatively known as The Kingdom of Spain, it is an autonomous government and partner of European Union. Spain is arranged in the south west of Europe on the Peninsula Iberian. Madrid, the capital, is the biggest city of Spain with more than 3,000,000 individuals of the populace. The official language is Spanish known as Castellan, yet there are perceived territorial dialects as Catalan-Valencian, Basque, Galician and Occitan that has a place with self-sufficient comminutes. Their legislature is Unitary Regional State Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy, which starting today we discover names like The King Juan Carlos I de Borbon, and the Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy. On the off chance that we think back to the administration of 1978, the Spanish Constitution was the end of the Spanish progress to vote based system, moved by the vote based political change in 1976 and 1977, the new Spains King Juan Carlos, notable and associated with his direct and demeanor named another PM and excused the one that was there. The new political race sorted out the reason for drafting and favoring another constitution in 1978. Instruction is free for Spain from the age of six to sixteen, and the religion is the Roman Catholicism which is viewed as the primary religion of Spain. Spain is likewise very notable for their engineering, music and move, not in any event, considering their food and important delegates icons in various games. The legislative issues of Spain is essentially settled by the constitution of 1978, which says Spain as a self-ruling government, where the individuals need to choose the Prime Minister for the intensity of the nation. The political type of the Government of Spain is parliamentary government, as per the Spanish Constitution, Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (1978), is a social delegate, majority rule, established government in which the Monarch is the head of state and the Prime Minister, whose official title is President of the Government, is the head of government.(Article 98). The political framework as parliamentary government implies a type of a current government in the present western majority rules systems, particularly in Europe, in which the lord execute the capacity of the leader of a state heavily influenced by the authoritative force (Parliament which are chosen individuals from the state for some period) and of the official force (Government). The standards and choices set up of the Parliament control not just the methodology or activity of the state, yet in addition the activity and elements of their own lord. It partitions in three unique forces of government: Administrative force devises and adjusts the current laws as indicated by the assessment of the residents. Another capacity is the endorsement of the laws and for the most part, it is on charge of the congress or a parliament, which are created by agents chose by the town that has been ascribed the principle task to communicate the assurance or will of them. Official force trustworthy in causing to go along the laws and that is accustomed to practicing the legislature or the own pioneer of the State. It is answerable for the day by day the executives of the State. The official force consider and executes general governmental issues as indicated by which the laws must be applied, speaks to the Nation in its discretionary relations, keeps up close the Armed Forces and every once in a while encourages to the enactment. The President is the obvious picture and figure and the most significant force. Spanish Constitution, Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (1978) The legal executive force is autonomous of the official and the assembly, managing equity for the benefit of the King by a few appointed authorities and justices. It is the liable for directing the equity in the organization or state, by methods for the utilization of the lawful standards (Article 99) Political Ideology Like whatever other nation which has their own administration we will discover political belief systems. As indicated by Roskin et al.(2009) states that belief systems are regularly founded on hypotheses yet streamlined and advanced to offer to mass crowds, manufacture political developments, and win decisions. Belief systems may be called modest hypotheses (p.39). Spain hosts a few multi-get-together frameworks at both provincial and the national level. Broadly it covers just two that are the most mainstream political predominant gatherings, which are PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol) that is the left-inclining, and the conservative PP (Partido Popular). On nowadays the political prevailing gathering is the one that administers in the present. The territorial gatherings can be solid in self-sufficient networks like Catalonia and the Basque Country because of a few clashes between these two that have been making national government alliances. The belief system of PSOE is social popular government and social majority rules system is a political philosophy that believes itself to be a type of reformist vote based communism. Social vote based system dismisses the either or polarization translation of free enterprise versus communism (Busky, 2008, p. 8; Harrington, 1989, p. 93). This implies their conviction it comprise to be a power social popular government that bolsters the economy and offers advantages to the populace, similar to joblessness, food stamps, minimal effort protection and sometimes thoroughly free. Figure .Political Parties in CongressAccording to specialist Steger (1997), Social popular government in its present structure was initially evolved by revisionist Marxist Eduard Bernstein who contradicted customary Marxisms backing of upset and class strife, guaranteeing that communism could be accomplished through transformative methods by means of delegate vote based system and collaboration between individuals paying little heed to class (p. 146). This implies this gathering additionally implies that they can improve the social states of the populaces by diminishing the advantages of the business, causing the average workers to get all credit than the business. The belief system of PP (Partido Popular) is the preservationist ideological group in Spain (Nordsieck, 2011, Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary decisions and ideological groups in Europe). This gathering was a refoundation in 1989 of the Peoples Alliance (Alianza Popular) and it was joined with little Christian vote based and liberal gatherings. The PP was until November 2011 the biggest resistance in the Congress of Deputies, with one hundred fifty three out of 300 and fifty delegates, and the biggest party spoke to in the Senate, with one hundred and one out of 200 and eight congresspersons. Their belief system is focal and right, which implies that they have to advance the complete freedom for business and the state, can't be associated with the economy. Constituent System Spain utilizes a lion's share framework (the greater part), which in article 68 from the Constitution in the appointive law of 1977 (rebuilt in 1985) depends on the relative portrayal framework, that as per Roskin, Cord, Medeiros, and Jones, (2009) states that corresponding portrayal framework chooses agent by partys percent of vote, which implies each region sends a few delegates to parliament, not only one (pag. 70). The base of delegates must be 300 and the most extreme 400 individuals from the parliament that are chosen by free, immediate, equivalent, and mystery vote in favor of a multi year time span, it must acquire at least three percent of the vote so as to meet all requirements for parliamentary portrayal. The democratic framework utilized is that of corresponding portrayal with shut gathering records, that mean voters can just decide in favor of ideological groups as a whole gathering and they need to choose who ever gets the most elevated positions is will in general get a demonstration the parliament. Following DHondt technique a scientific equation which marginally over speaks to the bigger gatherings to the detriment of the littler ones (Roskin, Cord, Medeiros, and Jones, 2009, p. 71) in each provision of Spain the discretionary vote or testimonial must be appointed by at least two agents for every fortune, this incorporates the self-ruling urban communities (out of Iberian Peninsula) of Ceuta and Melilla, every one of these two needs to allocated just a single appointee. Enactment can be opened by the Congress of Deputies and they are relegated to affirm or reject the laws embraced by the official government. They likewise have the ability to choose, the PM or the President of the Government. The head administrator can be expelled from his obligations because of a demonstration of positive support from the chosen parliament, and afterward it should be subbed. Political decision framework likewise assists with majoring ideological groups in light of the fact that not just areas mind little populaces are over-spoken to. Spain has two gathering frameworks that littler and local gatherings groups little portrayal, because of distinction in populace between fortunes, when the regions are completely spoken to, the appointees is little contrasting with a couple of significant gatherings, regardless of whether other littler gatherings figured out how to get in excess of three percent of the votes. The three percent to get in the Congress is fruitless in numerous regions, where the quantity of seats per voting demographic has a lower normal that the genuine representatives to be inside the Congress is successfully higher, for instance, the real number for the regions having three seats is twenty five percent, a lot higher than three percent, in any case, in regions, for example, Barcelona and Madrid, while the quantity of seats is a lot higher, the three percent to get it the Congress is as yet supportive to dispose of the littlest gatherings. Government intercession in the Economy After Dictator Francos demise, Spain passed a change to majority rules system in 1970s, despite the fact that a rapidly method of modernization occurred, the Spanish government assistance state was seen as of not long ago, that has been relative turned out week. There is a rundown of the principle issues this results has left is that the consideration has gone to be an administration issue, the interchange among levels of government, the government assistance blend and open help for social strategies. Another issue

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Exploratory Essay on Immigration

Exploratory Essay on Immigration Exploratory Essay on Immigration Movement into the USA has as of late become an argumentative issue in the national discussion. Democrats and Republicans have conflicted with one another, and with the White House. Republicans have conflicted with Republicans too. For what reason is movement such an issue to a nation that was established on settlers, and has recorded â€Å"Give me your worn out, your poor, your clustered masses longing to inhale free.† on their well known Statue of Liberty. There are a few reasons that develop in the discussion. The recorded wellspring of migrants and national character is a primary one. The first workers to the USA were in actuality Anglo Saxon Protestants. As their national character developed, they considered themselves to be a Christian, Protestant, English talking individuals and country. As further rushes of workers showed up, they were, if not Anglo Saxon, principally western European, and Christian and for the most part ready to learn English, and be consumed into the American way. In any event, when the Irish, Italians and Polish advanced toward the USA, albeit Catholic they were Europeans, who fit into the prevalently Anglo Saxon American character. They were minorities, who learned English and acknowledged the state of affairs. Additionally, a large number of them carried required aptitudes to the nation. This was a central point of the feeling of national personality, America was white, English and Protestant. The inactive racial prevalence hints were just watched straightforwardly with respect to the African American slaves. Nonetheless, as they were slaves and a little minority they were endured, if not invited. It is this that is driving a portion of the protection from current migration. The wellspring of the new influx of outsiders isn't European, or Anglo Saxon. Or maybe the principle gatherings of outsiders are Latin Americans originating from South America, and the Caribbean island. They are dominatingly Spanish talking, incompetent, and Catholic, and showing up in extraordinary numbers. This compromises the national character in different manners. The danger they posture to the first settlers is first in the sheer greatness of their numbers. In California, Texas, and Florida for instance. This takes steps to change the entire culture of these and different states. Rather than being retained into the American culture, learning English and giving abilities, they are requesting instruction in Spanish for their kids, and the lion's share has poor training, no English, not many aptitudes and no assets. Known as Hispanics there are around 50 million in the USA. Just Mexico has more. In the period 2010-11 their numbers in the USA rose by 2.8 million. It is anticipated in 50 years time the Hispanics will comprise 33% of the number of inhabitants in the USA. (U.S. Evaluation Burea). It is this that has the Republicans concerned. With such numbers wanting to communicate in Spanish, be instructed in Spanish, and keep their Catholic religion their movement is viewed as colonization. Their absence of aptitude and assets as a channel on government managed savings, clinical and instructive assets. The gigantic measure of illicit migrants as of now in the nation is another issue. Around 11 million are presently living in the USA wrongfully. To Republicans they are crooks, lawbreakers who should be ousted, not upheld. Others state reality directs they should be given lawful status since it is difficult to capture and expel them. Besides many have kids that were conceived in the USA, are in schools, and consider themselves to be Americans. It is a result of such complexities that movement is such an argumentative subject in the USA today. There is by all accounts no simple answer for the topic of movement into the USA, regardless of whether lawful or unlawful. Tips on composing: Exploratory papers pose inquiries to accumulate and share data on the point about migration. It isn't important to discover answers. Presentations for exploratory expositions are wide, as you are making an investigation into a theme, not demonstrating a postulation. Present the subject and the inquiries you will pose. Express your exploration question unmistakably state what you need to find, and why. Recognize the issue, its causes and different elements of movement. Distinguish leaders and other invested individuals. You don't need to gracefully arrangements as the paper is to recognize the issue. In the event that it happens that you need custom exploratory papers on movement contact our expert composing organization.

Friday, July 17, 2020

Effective Tips for Writing Research Paper like a Pro

Effective Tips for Writing Research Paper like a Pro How to Succeed in Writing a Research Paper Students, who are unfamiliar and inexperienced with academic writing, often feel confused and anxious when they are assigned to write a research paper. Becoming a strong writer in any field of knowledge takes a lot of time and a great deal of practice. Besides, writing research paper can be often messy and doesn’t look like a straight linear process as it is described in any step by step research paper writing guide. Research paper writing is one of the most difficult activities, so to help you overcome these difficulties and make the whole writing process easier, we have gathered here some useful tips for writing research paper that are sure to help you feel more confident. Research papers are the most common assignments that students have to write in practically all college classes every semester, even in science, math or dance courses. A research paper is a piece of academic writing where you have to present your analysis of the theoretical and substantial information that you have learned in the process of in-depth research. Research papers in different academic disciplines may vary in the exact format, but usually, the most common parts are: Abstract Introduction Literature Review Methodology Findings/Results Conclusion/Discussion References Sometimes, before you start working on your research paper, your instructor may assign you the task of writing a proposal for a research paper in which you have to present and explain the importance of studying a certain research problem and define the practical ways in which your study should be performed. A successful research proposal should show your profound knowledge of the topic and your great enthusiasm for performing a study. Academic writing is hard and if you want to succeed in it, you should develop good writing habits. Keep in mind that no one can create a strong college paper in just one draft on the night when the research paper is due. The following tips for writing a research paper cannot guarantee you a good research paper, but they will help you eliminate the most serious problems that are common for poor papers. Choose a topic as soon as you get the assignment and think critically to make a good research question. Give yourself enough time for doing a research. You should have time to finish your paper even if something goes wrong, for example, you have to wait for a book or an article until it is available in the library, or your computer may crash and you will need time to recover the lost data. Start working with a good outline that divides the task into smaller parts which may seem less daunting. Stick to one key idea which you should state in a sentence or in a paragraph. Provide strong argument and convincing evidence to support your thesis statement. Make several drafts. First drafts are usually rough, bad-written, and plagued with confusions and omissions. Second drafts cannot be called perfect either. The best research papers are usually rewritten several times. Always proofread your final copy and fix grammar and spelling errors and typos. An uncorrected paper says to the reader that you’re sloppy and do not care about your project. If you do not care about your research paper, why should your reader? Such rules may seem too demanding but they teach you self-discipline and ensure you achieve good results. The Process of Writing an Abstract for a Research Paper An abstract is a short piece of writing (usually one paragraph of 200-300 words) that describes a larger project, its content, and scope and identifies the project’s objective, methods, findings, and conclusions. Actually, an abstract is a concise summary of your research paper, it offers a preview and presents key points that can help your audience decide whether your entire work is worth reading so you should do your best to write it well. Abstracts vary in format from discipline to discipline, so when you are writing a literature research paper, psychology research paper or research paper in biology, you abstracts will differ in structure, but all of them should include four types of information: State the main objective of a project Outline the methods you used to achieve your goals List your project’s results Draw conclusions Although abstract is included in a research paper as the first section, it is written last because it summarizes the entire content. To write an abstract, you should take key phrases or full sentences from every section and organize them as a summary of your research paper by adding transition words and phrases to make it cohesive and clear. To make your abstract the most effective, you should use the following stylistic techniques: Avoid specialized technical vocabulary (jargon) to communicate your ideas to a broader audience Use clear, concise, but complete sentences Always use the past tense because you’re describing what you have already done Try to use the active voice in your sentences when possible A research paper is an arduous and time-consuming task. It is challenging because it requires strong analytical, research, and critical thinking skills of which not all of us can boast. Many students may face difficulties at any stages of the writing process, for example, when choosing a topic or writing a hypothesis for a research paper or a tricky methodology section. But there is no need to get frustrated â€" you can get qualified writing help on our college research paper writing service. Our expert writers can create perfect model research papers on any topic and help you get better grades.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Sun Hydraulics Essay - 1623 Words

Sun Hydraulics: Leading in Tough Times Case Study Executive Summary Sun Hydraulics, an industry leader of hydraulic valves and manifolds, has seen steady growth over the past eight years. It has been a profitable company throughout the years with varying return on sales. Presently Sun is constrained by declining sales and high labor costs heading into the present recession. The horizontal corporate structure has proven ineffective in ridding itself of low performing employees that are weighing down the company and thus decreasing profitability. It is time for Allen Carlson, president and CEO of Sun Hydraulics Corporation, to address the employees and shareholders of his decision on how Sun plans to deal with labor and profits†¦show more content†¦The organization is multi-functional, created in Koski’s vision of â€Å"horizontal management†, with no job titles, no hierarchy, no departments, no budgets, no direct sales channels, etc. The employee’s feel strongly about this structure, as Chairman Cly de Nixon put it, â€Å"Sun’s unstructured environment is the key to our quality.† This unique approach created an active exchange of information among engineering, manufacturing, marketing, and commerce. This horizontal structure does have a downfall, unproductive workers can hide or simply do what they want and choose not to cooperate. Overall the structure seems to work for Sun, and employees genuinely are empowered to work for the greater good of the company. Financially speaking Sun Hydraulics has seen measure growth in sales from 1996 through 2000. Their revenues have grown from $47,374,000 to $66,268,000 from 1996 to 2000 respectively, but I was disappointed in Sun’s fluctuating profitability during this same time, seemingly caused by continually growing labor cost. As a percent of sales, profitability fluctuated from (1%) in 1996 to a high of 7% in 1998. There were steady increases in Labor and Manufacturing Overhead that have adversely affected the bottom line from the high water mark in 1998. As Allen looks to the future he faces aShow MoreRelatedNumerical Modeling And Validation Of Neo Hookean Materials2147 Words   |  9 Pagesutilized in the automotive manufacturing industry. Power steering units are generally hydraulic systems designed to assist in the steering of the wheels. Generally, the hydraulics pressure is generated from either the geroter (generated rotor), or a rotary vane pump, which are driven by the engine of the vehicle. The turning of the wheels is done by a hydraulic cylinder which has a force applied to it from a hydraulic cylinder, which is directly controlled by valves allowing for flow according to theRead MoreUse Of Hydraulic Systems Used From Ancient Egypt2203 Words   |  9 Pages______________ 1.1 Chronology of Hydraulics A machine could be described as a device which reduces human effort. Machines consist of various components which perform their intended operations to give the desired result. Engines, Vehicles, computers etc are all examples of machines we come across in our daily lives. Hydraulic machines are those devices which use the power of a liquid to perform simple work. These machines are based on the principle of hydraulics which deals with the mechanical propertiesRead MoreTHIS ESSAY IS ABOUT HOW AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION WORKS AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS HAVE ALL THE FEATURES OF MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS AND A LOT MORE. HAPPY READING...4002 Words   |  16 Pagesa huge assortment of parts in a fairly small space. Among other things, you see: An ingenious planetary gearset A set of bands to lock parts of a gearset A set of three wet-plate clutches to lock other parts of the gearset An incredibly odd hydraulic system that controls the clutches and bands A large gear pump to move transmission fluid around The center of attention is the planetary gearset. About the size of a cantaloupe, this one part creates all of the different gear ratios that the transmissionRead MoreEnergy Resource: Natural Gas and Solar Energy Essay1215 Words   |  5 Pagescompounds. Natural gas is also highly flammable. (The American Heritage Dictionary, 2009) Natural gas is extracted by Hydraulic Fracturing. Hydraulic Fracturing is the use of sand, water, and chemicals injected at high pressures to blast open shale rock and release the trapped gas inside. (Ohio Environmental Council, 2013) NRDC opposed fracking, which is another name for Hydraulic Fracturing, because they wanted more clean energy. NRDC stands for Natural Resource Defense Council, they work to protectRead MoreNotes On Parabolic Trough Collector Tube1216 Words   |  5 Pagesforces (such as wind), allowing the collectors to rotate so that mirrors and receivers can keep up tracking the sun - these are the main requirements which need to be fulfilled by structure. b) Mirrors, reflectors are the main feature of the parabolic through solar collector which are characteristically parabola-curved shaped. This specific composition helps them to concentrate the sun s beam radiation to the receiver. Nowadays all parabolic trough power plants use panels made out of glass whereasRead MoreRenewable Energy And Solar Energy Essay1582 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"As a source of energy, nothing matches the sun†¦. Only a small fraction of the sun’s power output strikes the Earth, but even that provides 10,000 times as much as all the commercial energy that humans use on the planet† (Make Solar Energy Economical). This is good evidence that investing in solar energy can be valuable because not only is it clean and renewable, but it is also plentiful. This makes solar energy better option then the use of fossil fuel, however there are a couple of challengesRead MoreTaking a Look at Greek, Chinese and Indian Civilizations1995 Words   |  8 Pagesare the Earth spins on axis, theories of the motions of the planets according to the sun, formulas about the rotation and lunar orbits of Earth, described numerical and geometric rules for eclipse calculations, and he is the first known astronomer to have used a continuous system of counting solar days (â€Å"Aryabhata I†). Other Ancient Indian astronomers also came up with a cycle to synchronize the motions of the sun and the moon. Around 500 A.D., Aryabhata presented facts and ultimately a theory theRead MoreSolar Energy is Superior Essay991 Words   |  4 Pagesscientific process called desalination. Desalination is a chemical process in which natural compounds are separated from water, making the water clean and drinkable. Traditionally, sea water is propelled through hydraulic pumps which create a flow to separate the water from the sea salt. Hydraulic pumps require certain chemicals that are harmful to humans and these chemicals sometimes are cross-contaminated in the drinking water being produced. Personally, I don’t want to drink chemicals that are threateningRead MoreThe Hydraulic System Of Automatic Transmission System Essay1350 Words   |  6 Pages The hydraulic system in automatic transmission gives the system a smooth running which works under the basis of normal hydraulics. This consists of a complex maze and tubes that transmits the transmission fluid under pressure to the torque convertor and all other parts of the transmission. Present generation automatic transmission system is more complex and are assisted with computerized electrical components. Shift controlRead MoreAmerica Should Pursue Alternative Energy Sources Essay1235 Words   |  5 Pagesand 33% from soft-energy (alternative sources)† (((Smil, 47))) Most of the energy we use on a daily basis is not produced using clean methods. Some alternative energy sources that are already in place within the United Stats are wind, solar, and hydraulic. First, wind power is one alternative energy source that America should pursue. Wind power is one of most noticeable of the main alternatives. The power of wind is captured using tall wind turbines or windmills. These turbines are often found is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Identity, Authenticity and Survival Essay - 802 Words

Formative Writing I : Identity, Authenticity and Survival by Kandru Manibhushan Rao Kwame Anthony Appiah’s essay on Identity, Authenticity and Survival is based on Charles Taylor’s earlier work on recognition and identity. Though Taylor’s references to identity are mostly to collective identity, Appiah’s aim is to draw a comparison or even find a connection between individual identity and collective identity. Identity A collective identity, explains Appiah, is the way an individual is recognized based on broad qualities of categorization such as gender, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc. Whereas individual identity is born from personal characteristics such as wit, charm, grace,†¦show more content†¦* Individual Dimension: This comprises of traits such as intelligence, charm, wit, cupidity, etc. which are all socially important features. Authenticity Authenticity, as described by authors such as Lionel Trilling and Charles Taylor is the idea of living one’s life by one’s own reference and for one’s own self without yearning for recognition or acceptance from the collective or society. However, Appiah points out that the search for authenticity is somewhat a paradoxical one. The search for authenticity, as said, goes as much against the demands for a prescribed social life as it does for the recognition of one’s real self. There are two layer for recognition of originality/authenticity: * How a person identifies or recognizes himself among other people. * How a culture bearing group (minority) recognizes itself among a larger group. This leg of Appiah’s essay focuses extensively on Trilling’s contradictory statements on authenticity. Claiming one’s authentic ethnicity, for example, for the need of expressing one’s originality in turn proves one’s need for social acknowledgement for such originality. Even counterconventionalism requires needs recognition from conventionalist. The problem that arises here is, in order to be original, an individual has to understand convention and being everything that it is not, thus resulting in the individual being not authentic,Show MoreRelatedThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins Essay1475 Words   |  6 PagesIdentity. Something so elementary to define, yet so onerous to apply to a person. Seemingly, it appears that only through experience someone can manage to partially grasp their identity as they are pushed to confront their environments and respond in an appropriate manner constitutionalized by their identity. 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A similar consideration might be given to the Glasgow School of Art, Mackintosh Building. Whilst the building was a source of identity for the school’s perpetuity the building fabric was increasingly struggling to reconcile the changing demands and needs of the school. This was compounded by an increasing requirement for public access. This was exemplified by the fact the accessRead MoreReflection Paper About The Caribbean1637 Words   |  7 PagesThe Caribbean holds so much history and significance to who we are and what we do. Because of colonization and the white supremacist patrical imperialist who inate their powers against people who had no voices, it started to becomes this world of survival of the fittest. 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Teen Pregnancy Is One Hundred Percent Preventable Free Essays

Teen Pregnancy Retha McDonald Argument Essay ? Abstract The following research paper contains important information on how you can prevent your teen from becoming pregnant. The thesis is clearly stated in my argument. Topic sentences and sub-topics support my theory. We will write a custom essay sample on Teen Pregnancy Is One Hundred Percent Preventable or any similar topic only for you Order Now Teen Pregnancy and prenatal care are very important issues but can be avoided all together with patience, guidance and instruction from responsible parents. Parents have to discuss issues such as safe sex, prevention of pregnancy along with topics such as birth control and being abstinence until marriage. This paper will also cover issues dealing with peer pressure. ? Teen pregnancy and prenatal care Parents need to discuss the importance of abstinence with their teenagers. If a teen was to become pregnant, prenatal care is the best way to provide and insure the safe arrival of an unborn child. Teenagers are not being taught at home about the practice of safe sex and prevention of an unwanted pregnancy. Teenagers that are sexually active need to be put on birth control and taught about STD’s, which mean sexual transmitted disease. Teen pregnancy is one hundred percent preventable. Sex and prevention Teenagers are not being taught at home about safe sex and prevention. When a child starts puberty or even before puberty parents should discuss changes that are happening with their bodies. Explaining that it is normal to feel attraction toward the opposite sex, but acting on those feelings can result in serious consequences. Parents should also go into particular issues dealing with the dangers such as STD’s, and unwanted pregnancies. Discussions about birth control and abstinence should be discussed at an early age. Parents should talk to their teens in a comfortable setting so the child won’t feel like they are being lectured, but feel like they are in an open conversation that they can join in and ask for advice. Parents should allow time during the end for teenagers ask any questions that they might have. In the article† Is Parenting Associated with Teenagers ‘Early Sexual Risk-Taking, Autonomy and Relationship with Sexual Partners? â€Å"Crabtree, S. (2005) states â€Å"very extensive Research showed that relationships between parents and teenagers are linked to various outcomes associated with teenager’s first sexual experience. Parents have a big influence on their children future and they play a major role in the behavior that their child will exhibit. Parents have to set values, perfect communication about sex will help build beliefs in teenagers and they will have the necessary skills to deal with situations if confronted with sexual advances. Parkes, A. (201 1) states â€Å"teaching teenagers to abstain from sex is also associated with teenagers not engaging in risky sexual behavior, positive parenting has shown it will delay first sex. † Proper prenatal care Adolescent childbearing negatively affects society and families, and increases health risks, as well as developmental and childrearing problems for mothers and children (Letamo Majelantle 2001; Smith Pell 2001). Underage childbearing may result in miscarriage, preterm births and repeated pregnancies, with increased rate of low birth weight delivery, neonatal death and subsequent incidence of infant illness (Williams Delavan 2006). Teens that do become pregnant do not receive the proper prenatal care because they are afraid to approach parents; they have feelings of being ashamed of what they have done. They are embarrassed, and they feel that they may have let the family down. Majority of teen pregnancies are hidden and kept secret up until month six or seven, simply because the teens are afraid to speak up. They come to a crossroad where they know that soon they will need medical attention. What teens don’t realize is that they are compromising their health and the health of their unborn child every pregnancy needs to be monitored by a doctor; prenatal vitamins need to be given, possibly iron pills. While pregnant the teen could form serious conditions such a preeclampsia or develop high blood pressure. Proper prenatal care is a must with any pregnancy this is to ensure the safe arrival of a baby and making sure the mother is healthy before, during and after the birth. Immaturity is implicated as a cause of most problems with preterm labor. Monitor your children â€Å"Teenage parenthood passed down through generations, with the children of young mothers becoming parents themselves at an early age, such a difficult tradition to break. Frances, G. (2011) monitor your children. Know where your children are at all times. Know the company that they keep. Most of the time parents like to feel that they know what their child would and would not do. That is not always the case when you have one bad apple; sometime teens can easily be persuaded to fit in with the popular crowd, it is important to know the company that your teen is surrounded by. Bad association and peer pressure can lea d down a terrible road of destruction for example an unwanted pregnancy. Teens should not have a lot of idle time. Engaging in an after school program or sports can keep your teen busy from just hanging out with friends and possibly experimenting with sexual behavior. Family outings on the weekends learning activities, family oriented activities that can include all the kids not just the teen, helping with yard work, building something with dad, planting and gardening with mom are ways to insure that your teen is safe and not being pressured in the streets and forced into sexual behavior too soon. Activities with the family will ensure you are monitoring your teen correctly and know where they are at all times. Conclusion Teen pregnancy is one hundred percent preventable parents need to discuss the importance of abstinence. If a teen was to become pregnant prenatal care is the best way to provide and insure the safe arrival of an unborn child. Monitoring your teen’s friends and who they are affiliated with, by finding out where they like to hang out and go in their free time can warrant some behaviors that you wouldn’t want your teen engaging in. Start talking to your teen about safe sex at an early age and teaching them about the dangers that come with having sex is a sure way to keep away the STD’s and the unwanted pregnancies. Work Cited and Reference: Crabtree, S. (2005). Teens on Sex Education: Abstinence-Only or Safe-Sex Approach. Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, 1-3. Parkes, A. (2011). Is Parenting Associated with Teenagers’ Early Sexual Risk-Taking, Autonomy And Relationship with Sexual Partners. Perspectives On Sexual ; Reproductive Health, 43(1), 30. doi:10. 1363/4303011 Chen, C. W. , Tsai, C. Y. , Sung, F. C. , Lee, Y. Y. , Lu, T. H. , Li, C. Y. , ; Ko, M. C. (2010). Adverse birth outcomes among pregnancies of teen mothers: age-specific analysis of national data in Taiwan. Child: Care, Health ; Development, 36(2), 232-240. doi:10. 1111/j. 1365-2214. 2009. 01039. x Mahavarkar, S. H. , Madhu, C. K. , ; Mule, V. D. (2008). A comparative study of teenage pregnancy. Journal Of Obstetrics ; Gynaecology, 28(6), 604-607. doi:10. 1080/01443610802281831 Frances, G. (2011). Teenage pregnancy: successes and challenges. Practice Nursing, 22(1), 12-16. How to cite Teen Pregnancy Is One Hundred Percent Preventable, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Islam in France

Introduction This paper focuses on France and Islam with special attention given to the Burqa controversy. To appreciate the origins and history of the veil, the first part of this paper is an analysis of veil use in the three major monotheistic religions. The paper goes further to look at how France deals with the Islamic population and religious signs. Finally, it looks at how the burqa has become a problem for the French Government.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Islam in France specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Veil in Monotheistic Religions Veils have been used in many cultures in the history of mankind. Some veils are worn for religious purposes. In a religion like Islam, veils are used by women as a sign of modesty. Apart from modesty, veils are used for many other purposes. For instance, some cultural groups have special veils. The veil in such an instance is a cultural symbol. The veil in Is lam helps to institute a socio-sexual distance and signifies personal devotion towards Allah[1]. Veils used for religious purposes were adopted from the cultural groups among which given religions developed. This is the reason why all the monotheistic religions i.e. Christianity, Islam and Judaism have veils. In given cultures around the world, especially among the tribes in ancient Palestine or current Middle East, all women used veils. This is because these tribes practiced certain forms of seclusion against women. Women were secluded from men to avoid promiscuity. However, given physical seclusion was largely impractical; veiling was used as a way of ensuring a woman remained an untouched mystery of sorts. Later some women who rebelled against veiling were regarded as prostitutes i.e. people ready to trade their dignity with the pleasure of attracting men to themselves. Beyond issues to do with seclusion, veils have been used among some cultures for general cleanliness e.g. keepi ng hair dry. In some other instances, veils were worn to signify life seasons e.g. special veils during funeral or when mourning[2]. Some veils developed as a way of hiding identity. For example, individuals would veil themselves and walk around so as not to be identified. In Judaism, most religious articles were veiled. Brides used to be veiled only to be unveiled on their marriage day. In day to day living, all indications show that Jewish women, practitioners of Judaism, veiled their heads and on special occasions even the face was veiled.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Christians borrowed veiling from the Jewish traditional way of life. Jewish women generally wore veils. In the early church, all church going women wore veils. There are many bible verses that talk about veiled women. There are liturgical veils that are used to cover the altar, church tabernacles, church documents and all sacred places or tools. Apart from veils used for sacred things or tools, head covering is an entrenched Christian practice. The use of veils in Islam is also attributable to the Arab culture in which Islam developed. Even before Islam, Arab cultures general advocated for seclusion and veiling of women. Muslim women are required to dress as per to Hijab (modest dressing). Hijab refers to a code of dress for Muslim women meant to veil or to conceal some parts of the body that should not be seen by marriageable men[3]. There are a variety of veils worn by Muslim women. The basic veils are headscarves and are used for aesthetic purposes in addition to the modesty requirement. The burqa is characteristically different from the veils because it is a garment that practically covers the whole body[4]. In actual sense, no part of the face is left visible and one is only able to see and breathe through netting. â€Å"Veiling among Muslim women has become iconic in the world creating a distinct difference between dressing in eastern countries and dressing from the western countries†[5]. Islam in France The jihadist crusades of Muslims led to introduction of Islam in France in the 8th century. However, after World War II, Islamic presence in France dwindled and currently, the Muslims in France are a minority group[6]. Many of the Muslims in France are siblings of immigrants who came in search of green pastures[7]. Over the years, despite challenges, the government has sought programs that address immigrant’s characteristics e.g. documentaries on immigrants cultures[8]. The surge of Muslims into France can directly be attributed to France colonization of Islamic areas especially in North Africa. Apart from the ever soaring numbers of Muslim immigrants, Islam grew in France from the conversion of some natives into the religion. Unlike in other countries, due to overemphasis on secularism, Islam in France is overly strained[9]. Many F rench people still consider Islam as an alien culture. They consider it inherited as its presence in France is as a result of immigration of Muslims mostly from Algeria and other northern Africa French colonies. Though France is a secular state, it has recently attempted to facilitate for representation of the Muslims.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Islam in France specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was a move to create a â€Å"French Council of the Muslim Faith† in 2002 though it faced criticism with claims that it will enhance communism. Having been immigrants most of the Muslim families are relegated to living in suburbs outside the major towns where the conditions are poor. This probably is one of the causes of the Paris suburb riots in 2005. How Government Deals with Muslim Population The French government seeks to treat the Islamic community like any other citizens. It strives to ensur e religion does not influence state operation in any way. It allows for congregating of Muslims and many mosques exist in France. However, the laà ¯cità © framework or code that guides religious conduct, no religion is allowed to display religious symbols or practice in public as to affect others. This kind of approach to Muslims and people of other religions is supposed to foster integration and facilitated nationalism. People feel more belonging to France because religion does not come into play when in the public places. However, some people have argued that secularism should be more about accommodating difference thus integration than banning difference[10]. Muslims in France live a normal Islamic life except that they have to follow the laà ¯cità © framework[11]. This framework or code of conduct specifies how religious conduct is to be approached. It stipulates that people have to practice their religion without affecting the rest of the public. Muslims in France are allow ed to follow Islamic stipulates but due to general secularism, it is very difficult. For example, they are allowed, as required of all Muslims, to carry out daily prayers (salah) and observe the fast of Ramadhan. However due to work demands and lack of proper recognition of Ramadhan feast days, many Muslims find it had to live their religion[12]. The government, based on a proposal by the current president, set up â€Å"The French Council of Muslim Faith† (CFCM)[13]. The CFM controls Islamic conduct and works closely with the â€Å"Federation of French Muslims† and the â€Å"Union of Islamic organizations of France.† The Burqa Problem Since 1905, France adopted a framework called laà ¯cità ©. The framework aims at the â€Å"separation of state and religion† or basically secularization of France so as to accord all citizens freedom and equality[14]. It is on the basis of laà ¯cità © that veils were banned in schools and the work places. In the recent p ast, the burqa, which is a garment that covers the whole body (even the face) and is worn by Muslim women, came into focus. Politicians have made concerted efforts to have the burqa banned[15]. The biggest huddle to their intentions has always been the constitutionality of such a ban.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In March of 2010, the top most administrative court in France quashed plans to ban the burqa. The plan to ban the burqa had the support of President Sarkozy himself. The president had supported the ban on the ground that the burqa denied women the dignity they deserve. The attempted ban, supported by Sarkozy enlisted tremendous heated debates in France and across Europe. Those in support of the ban have argued that it is in line with laà ¯cità ©. According to them, laà ¯cità © as a framework aimed at ensuring all conspicuous religious signs and symbols are kept away from the public domain. There are other arguments that have been raised in favor of the ban. It is widely believed that some traditionalists force women to wear the full veils[16]. This is against the principles of equality as envisaged by French secularism. To tame those who may force others into wearing full veils, the ban had proposed a hefty fine. Radical Islam is perceived by the politicians, especially from the right wing, and majority citizens as being in disagreement with the cardinal French values[17]. The French values are enshrined in the famous â€Å"liberte, egalite et fraternite†. Radical Islamic values tend to place women in subservient positions and are thus understood to go against what being French means. The majority in France are very passionate about their national identity; the more reason why Sarkozy did badly in the regional elections. Islamic scholars, on their part, are generally divided on whether wearing of veils is an Islamic imperative or not. Nevertheless, the traditionalists among the Muslims tend to favor the wearing of the ‘burka’. The government saw it fitting to ban the use of veils in schools as a way of ensuring equality and freedom for all[18]. The ban of veils in schools and other public places enlisted widespread condemnation, in some cases violent protests, by the Muslim fraternity[19]. Many Muslims view the banning of the burka as a direct attack on Islamic religion and values. However, as Killian reports, majority of the Islamic women supported the ban on veils in schools thus are likely to support ban on burqa[20]. The biggest huddle to the banning of the burqa in France is the laws and courts by extension[21]. It is for this reason; it is argued, that the Sarkozy government consulted the Council of State even before the law had been passed. Rorive explains that in EU law, the concept of indirect discrimination is very meaningful[22]. As the ruling of the council confirmed, both French laws and the EU laws do not support such a ban. According to the council of state, the move to ban the burqa was merely out of bias and there was no legal or jurisprudential basis for the same. There are those who had been arguing that a ban was necessary for the sake of public security. According to the council, a ban on the burqa alone in the name of public security does not stand the test of non-discrimination. Conclusion T he history of the veil as an apparel indicates that it is a piece of clothing that has been used for long in many cultures. The use of the veil in the three major monotheistic religions resulted from the cultural practices in which the religions grew. The use of the veil is advocated for in the Quran[23]. However, the Burqa i.e. a veil that covers the whole of a woman’s body, even the face is controversial and some Muslims concur that banning it in schools is welcome[24]. The French government seeks to bar any conspicuous religious practices that can affect the public. Based on its Laà ¯cità © framework, it banned the use of veils by school going girls. Statistics show that very few high students have refused to abide by it. It is in the opinion of analysts that an increase in Muslim schools could assist those who are objected to this ban. The ban has been seen as a discrimination against the Muslims. Bibliography Ahmad Fawzia, â€Å"Beyond the Hijab as a Lodestone†. Journal of Feminists Studies in Religion 24, No 1 (2008): 99- 101 Cesari Joselyne â€Å"The Muslim Presence in France and the United States: Its Consequences for Secularism† French Politics, Culture and Society 25, No. 2 (Summer 2007): 34-45 Dimier Veronique. â€Å"French Secularism in Debate: Old Wine in New Bottles† French Politics, Culture and Society 26, No. 1 (Spring 2008): 92-110 El Hamel Chouki. â€Å"Muslim Diaspora in Western Europe: the Islamic Headscarf (Hijab), the Media and Muslim’s Integration in France.† Citizenship Studies 6, No 3 (Carfax Publishing, 2003): 293 – 308 Grillo, R. D. Pluralism and the Politics of Difference: State, Culture, and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998 Jelen Brigitte. â€Å"‘Leur Histoire est Notre Histoire’: Immigrant Culture in France between Visibility and Invisibility† French Politics, Culture and Society 23, No. 2 (Summer 2005): 101 – 1 25 Borneman John â€Å"Veiling and Women’s Intelligibility† Cardozo Law Review 30, No. 6, (2009):2745- 2760 Kilian, Caitlin. From A Community of Believers to an Islam of the Heart: â€Å"Conspicuous† Symbols, Muslim Practices and the Privatization of Religion in France. Madison, Sociology of Religion 68, No. 6 (2007): 305-320 Mac Cormaic Ruadhà ¡n. â€Å"Imam Seeks Ban On Burqa As Report Set To Urge Prohibition In Public Places†. The Irish Times (January 23, 2010): 12 Rorive Isabelle â€Å"Religious Symbols in the Public Space: the search for a European answer† Cardozo Law Review 30, No. 6, (2009):2669- 2698 Sachs, Susan. â€Å"Will France Dictate What Muslim Women Can Wear?; Committee’s Hearings On The Niqab Will Pit Ideal Of A Secular State Against The Guarantee Of Religious Freedom†. The Globe and Mail (July 7, 2009 Tuesday): 1-2 Saltmarsh, Matthew. â€Å"French Panel Stops Short Of Total Ban on Full Veil; Deputies Recommend Excl uding Muslim Garb in Public Facilities.† International Herald Tribune (January 27, 2010): 1-2 Scott, M. Joan. â€Å"Symptomatic Politics: The Banning Of Islamic Headscarves in French Public Schools. Institute for Advanced Study†. French Politics, Culture Society 23, No. 2 (Winter 2005): 106-127 Solihu Abdul Kabir Hussain â€Å"Making Sense of Hijab and Nigab in Contemporary Western Societies† Intellectual Discourse 17, No.1 (2009): 25-41 Weil Patrick. â€Å"Lifting the Veil†. Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, French Politics, Culture and Society 22, No. 3 (Fall 2004): 142-149 Footnotes Ahmad Fawzia, â€Å"Beyond the Hijab as a Lodestone†. Journal of Feminists Studies in Religion 24, No 1 (2008), 99- 101 R. D. Grillo. Pluralism and the Politics of Difference: State, Culture, and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 116 Abdul Kabir Hussain Solihu â€Å"Making Sense of Hijab and Nigab in Contempo rary Western Societies† Intellectual Discourse 17, No.1 (2009), 26 Solihu, 26 John Borneman â€Å"Veiling and Women’s Intelligibility† Cardozo Law Review 30, No. 6, (2009):2745- 2760) Chouki El Hamel. â€Å"Muslim Diaspora in Western Europe: the Islamic Headscarf (Hijab), the Media and Muslim’s Integration in France.† Citizenship Studies 6, No 3 (Carfax Publishing, 2003), 294 Caitlin, Kilian. From a community of Believers to an Islam of the Heart: â€Å"Conspicuous† symbols, Muslim Practices and the Privatization of Religion in France. Sociology of religion 68, No. 6 (2007), 305 Brigitte Jelen. â€Å"‘Leur Histoire est Notre Histoire’: Immigrant Culture in France between Visibility and Invisibility† French Politics, Culture and Society 23, No. 2 (Summer 2005), 126 Joselyne Cesari â€Å"The Muslim Presence in France and the United States: Its Consequences for Secularism† French Politics, Culture and Society 25, No. 2 ( Summer 2007), 37 Veronique Dimier. â€Å"French Secularism in Debate: Old Wine in New Bottles† French Politics, Culture and Society 26, No. 1 (Spring 2008), 99 Killian, 308 Killian, 311 Cesari, 37 Patrick, Weil. â€Å"Lifting the Veil†. Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, French Politics, Culture and Society 22, No. 3 (Fall 2004), 142 Ruadhà ¡n Mac Cormaic. â€Å"Imam Seeks Ban on Burqa as Report Set to Urge Prohibition In Public Places†. The Irish Times (January 23, 2010), 12 Weil, 144 Joan M. Scott. â€Å"Symptomatic Politics: The Banning Of Islamic Headscarves in French Public Schools. Institute for Advanced Study†. French Politics, Culture Society 23, No. 2 (Winter 2005), 104 Killian, 310 Scott, 107 Killian, 306 Susan, Sachs. â€Å"Will France dictate what Muslim women can wear?;Committee’s hearings on the niqab will pit ideal of a secular state against the guarantee of religious freedom.† The Globe and Mail (July 7, 2009 Tuesday), 1 Isabelle Rorive â€Å"Religious Symbols in the Public Space: the search for a European answer† Cardozo Law Review 30, No. 6, (2009), 2673 Solihu, 29 Matthew Saltmarsh. French panel stops short of total ban on full veil; Deputies recommend excluding Muslim garb in public facilities. International Herald Tribune (January 27, 2010), 1 This research paper on Islam in France was written and submitted by user Jacey R. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.